The roof protects the rooms from various natural phenomena. It is a basic element in the construction of a private house. Truss system is the supporting framework of the roof, which has a greater weight and load: wind, snow, frame. To avoid troubles during operation — the roof must be safe and strong.
Truss system – the basic part of the roof, it affects the strength of the roof itself, resistance to weather changes. The design affects the form of the roof and the plan of private homes, as well as details that will be used.
Truss system, which perform themselves, often made of wood, but sometimes use other roof coatings. Before installation of roof system your hands need to be well prepared theoretically.
Roof and roof
It is important to distinguish between the words «roof» and «roof». The roof consists of rafter man, roofing, insulation parts, protects the house from top. Rafter — a beam, which creates a bias, the carrier system pitched roof.
A roof is the upper shell of the roof, which is made from various construction materials. From the roof depends on the reliability and practicality of use of the house.
For efficient mounting of roof system you need to act according to certain rules, without which the structure will not be practical.
Special attention is paid to the robustness of the system, which must withstand the full load. To check the truss system for strength you need to conduct a rough estimation.
The second condition is stiffness. The roof system of the building should not be much SAG. Truss system should not have a lot of weight load on the Foundation and walls should be minimal. As the base material most often choose wood as it is relatively easier with other materials and is quite durable.
As important feature is the choice of material for the roof, which should not be heavy. Now less choose tile, which is made of ceramic. For this material all elements of the structure of the house should be well reinforced.
A wooden structure made only from high quality raw materials. For the manufacture of basic elements using a tree 1 or 2 varieties. Coniferous wood most often used for mounting on pitched roofs. This type of wood contains resin, so less rots.
Be sure to use antiseptic before start of work. This will help to avoid various troubles. Most often buy wood in the Northern regions. Such wood is considered to be the best.
The elements of the truss roof system
The design of the roof system consists of different elements. The basic components of a roof are: the slopes, the eaves and ridge. The top element of the roof is the ridge. Overhang (eaves) is a bottom element, a ramp is located between the eaves and ridge. As to the roof system will include structural elements.
To the supporting elements of the truss system include:
Mauerlat — is the basis for the fixing of rafters, it is laid around the perimeter walls. It is laid to ensure that the load was uniform. For the manufacture of mauerlat taken timber 20cm*20cm or 15cm*15cm (for small structures).
Sloping beams by which the load is transferred from the roof, wind and snow design mauerlat is a truss legs. They are most often mounted from the ridge to the eaves.
Beam, upon which the details of the roof girder. The diameter of the run is affected by its passage, often taken 20*20 cm.
Also in the roof system wooden roof included: struts, rack and tightening. Their main function is the reduction of the severity of the underlying elements.
Element of the roof system is truss. Part of this design included: tightening rafter man, strut, struts. The farm is built in the shape of a triangle, so it has good stability.
The connection nodes of the truss system are such categories: host connection mauerlat and legs, the connection node of the elements wood frame and legs.
The connection method and mauerlat rafters are rolling and hard.
It is not always possible to apply the tight corners because of the influence of the environment of wooden elements subjected to deformation and to apply a rigid coupling naslonnyh systems is not always appropriate. For the construction naslonnyh rafters using a system of sliding corners.
The presence of the drawing of the truss system, where all elements of the design, effectively help in the work on the system.
Forms of roofs
The roof on pitched roofs is of these forms:
- pent; gable; hipped; broken.
When truss system shed roof is made of the simple design, its slope is 14-26 degrees, then naslonnye rafter man’s rely on load-bearing walls.
The roof is a gable truss system should be with a slope of up to 60 degrees.
Roof with truss system hip roof the same must be tilted to 60 degrees. This type of roof is more complex when installing, but the cost will be much lower as the front wall of the missing. For installation of hipped roof use roof trusses or naslonnye rafters.
In the attic(broken line) forms the roof of the passage, make 10m, and the lower surface of the roof is angled 60 degrees, this allows you to increase the size of the attic. The span between the outer walls at the recommendations make no more than 10 m.
For design of the mansard roofs, the most commonly used connection details. The main functions of the connection details:
- provision of load transfer in the desired direction withstand physical loads providing guarantees of operation
Currently used for connection of elements in truss construction materials: studs, metal plates, bolts, screws.
For fastening parts, which are made of raw wood often use studs or bolts.
Ventilation system roof
From a warm room into the attic very often, the flow of water vapor that creates condensation on the surfaces of the roof. Suffer from condensation wooden parts and insulation.
Ventilation do to eliminate moisture in the rafter system, and in the attic.
Water vapor that enters the attic needs without obstruction out through the Windows and special openings that make the ridge of the roof.
In homes where the use of a flat roof and an attic space with ventilation.
Laying of roofing roof
Pitched roofs hard cover (asbestos cement sheet, polymer or ceramic tile, corrugated sheet, etc.) or soft materials (shingles). Often a hard material mounted on a wooden frame.
Hard sheets of roofing were most often laid on the sheathing of wooden bars
When installing each roof system personally necessarily need to firmly mount all the nodes and connections. It is important to make not only the correct frame, but also practical to select a material for the roof. The roof is the main protection of the home from various troubles.
Photos of the truss system